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如何选择阀门电动装置

文章来源:发(fa)表时(shi)间(jian):2019-01-01 14:47:37

  阀门电动装置是实现阀门程控、自控和遥控不可缺少的设备,其运动过程可由行程、转矩或轴向推力的大小来控制。由于阀门电动装置的工作特性和利用率取决于阀门的种类、装置工作规范及阀门在管线或设备上的位置,因此,正确选择阀门电动装置,对防止出现超负荷现象(工作转矩高于控制转矩)至关重要。

  通常,正(zheng)确选择阀门(men)电动装置(zhi)的依据如下:

  操作(zuo)力(li)矩:操作(zuo)力(li)矩是选(xuan)择(ze)阀(fa)门电(dian)动装置的最主(zhu)要参(can)数,电(dian)动装置输出力(li)矩应(ying)为阀(fa)门操作(zuo)最大力(li)矩的1.2~1.5倍。

  操(cao)作推(tui)(tui)力(li):阀门电动装(zhuang)置的主(zhu)机结构(gou)有两种(zhong):一种(zhong)是不配(pei)置推(tui)(tui)力(li)盘(pan)(pan),直接(jie)输出力(li)矩(ju);另一种(zhong)是配(pei)置推(tui)(tui)力(li)盘(pan)(pan),输出力(li)矩(ju)通过推(tui)(tui)力(li)盘(pan)(pan)中的阀杆螺母转换为输出推(tui)(tui)力(li)。

  输出(chu)轴(zhou)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)动(dong)圈(quan)(quan)数(shu)(shu):阀(fa)(fa)门(men)电(dian)动(dong)装置输出(chu)轴(zhou)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)动(dong)圈(quan)(quan)数(shu)(shu)的(de)多少与(yu)阀(fa)(fa)门(men)的(de)公称通径、阀(fa)(fa)杆(gan)螺(luo)(luo)距(ju)、螺(luo)(luo)纹头数(shu)(shu)有关,要按M=H/ZS计算(M为(wei)电(dian)动(dong)装置应满(man)足的(de)总转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)动(dong)圈(quan)(quan)数(shu)(shu),H为(wei)阀(fa)(fa)门(men)开(kai)启高度,S为(wei)阀(fa)(fa)杆(gan)传(chuan)动(dong)螺(luo)(luo)纹螺(luo)(luo)距(ju),Z为(wei)阀(fa)(fa)杆(gan)螺(luo)(luo)纹头数(shu)(shu))。

  阀(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)杆直(zhi)(zhi)径(jing):对多回转类明杆阀(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)门(men),如果电动(dong)(dong)装置允许通过(guo)的(de)(de)(de)最大(da)阀(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)杆直(zhi)(zhi)径(jing)不能(neng)通过(guo)所配(pei)阀(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)门(men)的(de)(de)(de)阀(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)杆,便不能(neng)组(zu)装成电动(dong)(dong)阀(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)门(men)。因此,电动(dong)(dong)装置空(kong)心输(shu)出轴的(de)(de)(de)内径(jing)必须大(da)于明杆阀(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)门(men)的(de)(de)(de)阀(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)杆外(wai)径(jing)。对部(bu)分回转阀(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)门(men)以及多回转阀(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)门(men)中的(de)(de)(de)暗杆阀(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)门(men),虽不用考虑(lv)阀(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)杆直(zhi)(zhi)径(jing)的(de)(de)(de)通过(guo)问题(ti),但(dan)在选(xuan)配(pei)时亦应充(chong)分考虑(lv)阀(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)杆直(zhi)(zhi)径(jing)与键槽的(de)(de)(de)尺寸,使组(zu)装后能(neng)正常工作(zuo)。

  输出(chu)转(zhuan)(zhuan)速(su):阀门(men)的启闭(bi)速(su)度若(ruo)过(guo)快,易(yi)产生水击(ji)现象。因此,应根据(ju)不(bu)(bu)同使(shi)用条件,选(xuan)择恰当的启闭(bi)速(su)度。阀门(men)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)装置有其特殊要(yao)求,即必(bi)须能(neng)够限(xian)(xian)(xian)定(ding)转(zhuan)(zhuan)矩(ju)(ju)(ju)或轴向力。通常阀门(men)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)装置采用限(xian)(xian)(xian)制转(zhuan)(zhuan)矩(ju)(ju)(ju)的连(lian)轴器(qi)。当电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)装置规格确(que)定(ding)之后(hou),其控制转(zhuan)(zhuan)矩(ju)(ju)(ju)也就(jiu)确(que)定(ding)了。一(yi)般在预先确(que)定(ding)的时(shi)间(jian)内运(yun)行,电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)不(bu)(bu)会超(chao)负(fu)荷。但如出(chu)现下列情况便可能(neng)导致(zhi)超(chao)负(fu)荷:一(yi)是(shi)(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压低,得不(bu)(bu)到所需的转(zhuan)(zhuan)矩(ju)(ju)(ju),使(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)停(ting)(ting)止(zhi)转(zhuan)(zhuan)动(dong);二是(shi)(shi)错误地调定(ding)转(zhuan)(zhuan)矩(ju)(ju)(ju)限(xian)(xian)(xian)制机(ji)构(gou),使(shi)其大于停(ting)(ting)止(zhi)的转(zhuan)(zhuan)矩(ju)(ju)(ju),造成连(lian)续产生过(guo)大转(zhuan)(zhuan)矩(ju)(ju)(ju),使(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)停(ting)(ting)止(zhi)转(zhuan)(zhuan)动(dong);三是(shi)(shi)断续使(shi)用,产生的热量积蓄,超(chao)过(guo)了电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)的允(yun)许温升值(zhi);四是(shi)(shi)因某种原因转(zhuan)(zhuan)矩(ju)(ju)(ju)限(xian)(xian)(xian)制机(ji)构(gou)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路发生故障,使(shi)转(zhuan)(zhuan)矩(ju)(ju)(ju)过(guo)大;五是(shi)(shi)使(shi)用环境温度过(guo)高,相(xiang)对使(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)热容(rong)量下降。

  过去(qu)对(dui)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)进行保(bao)护的办法是(shi)使用(yong)熔断(duan)(duan)器(qi)、过流继电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)、热(re)继电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)、恒温(wen)器(qi)等,但这些办法各有(you)利弊(bi)。对(dui)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动装置这种变负荷设备(bei),绝对(dui)可(ke)靠的保(bao)护办法是(shi)没有(you)的。因此,必须采(cai)取(qu)各种组合方式(shi)(shi),归纳起来有(you)两(liang)种:一是(shi)对(dui)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)输入(ru)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流的增减进行判断(duan)(duan);二(er)是(shi)对(dui)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)本身发热(re)情况进行判断(duan)(duan)。这两(liang)种方式(shi)(shi),无论那种都(dou)要(yao)考虑电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)热(re)容量(liang)(liang)给定的时间余量(liang)(liang)。

  通常(chang),过负荷的基本保护方法是:对电(dian)机连续运转或点动操(cao)作的过负荷保护,采(cai)用恒温器;对电(dian)机堵转的保护,采(cai)用热继(ji)电(dian)器;对短路(lu)事故,采(cai)用熔断(duan)器或过流继(ji)电(dian)器。

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